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Senin, 29 November 2010

makalah semantic

Language is a subtle and complex instrument used to communicate an incredible number of different things, but for our purposes here we can reduce the universe of communication to four basic categories: information, direction, emotion, and ceremony. The first two are often treated together because they express cognitive meaning while the latter two commonly express emotional meaning.
The communication of information may be the most frequently thought-of use of language, but it probably isn’t as dominant as most believe. The basic means of conveying information is through statements or propositions (a proposition is any declaration that asserts some matter of fact, as opposed to an opinion or value) — the building blocks of arguments. Some of the “information” here might not be true because not all arguments are valid; however, for the purposes of studying logic, information being conveyed in a statement may be either false or true.
Finally, language may be used to communicate feelings and emotions. Such expressions may or may not be intended to evoke reactions in others, but when emotional language occurs in an argument the purpose is to evoke similar feelings in others in order to sway them to agreeing with the argument’s conclusion(s).
The functions of language distinguishes six elements, or factors of communication, that are necessary for communication to occur: (1) context, (2) addresser (sender), (3) addressee (receiver), (4) contact, (5) common code and (6) me ssage.
As we have seen, human language has a very different design. The discrete combinatorial system called "grammar" makes human language infinite (there is no limit to the number of complex words or sentence in a language), digital (this infinity is achieved by rearranging discrete elements in particular orders and combinations, not by varying some signal along a continuum like the mercury in a thermometer), and compositional (each of the finite combinations has a different meaning predictable from the meanings of its parts and the rules and principles arranging them). (Pinker, p. 342)
This difference between human and nonhuman communication is also reflected in the role that different parts of the brain plays in language as opposed to other forms of vocalization.
It seems clear that we are unlikely to ever fully communicate with other species the way we do with each other. But the inability of other animals to speak the way we do is no more a sign of their evolutionary backwardness than our nose's lack of versatility compared to the elephant's trunk, or our inability to use our hands to fly the way bats can, are signs that we are evolutionarily inferior compared to them.

In English, the word semantic means "of or relating to meaning." In the science of linguistics, semantics is more explicit: It's the study of meaning based on the historical and psychological significance of words and terms. While the academic study of markup vocabularies can be thought of as a form of linguistics, the real-world practice of marking up documents semantically follows the first definition; in markup, semantics is concerned with the meaning of an element, and how that element describes the content it contains. This issue was always meant to be part of HTML, but the hacking of HTML for presentational purposes made short order of any semblance of semantic purity within the language.
Phonology is the study of the sound system of languages. It is a huge area of language theory and it is difficult to do more on a general language course than have an outline knowledge of what it includes. In an exam, you may be asked to comment on a text that you are seeing for the first time in terms of various language descriptions, of which phonology may be one. At one extreme, phonology is concerned with anatomy and physiology - the organs of speech and how we learn to use them. At another extreme, phonology shades into socio-linguistics as we consider social attitudes to features of sound such as accent and intonation. And part of the subject is concerned with finding objective standard ways of recording speech, and representing this symbolically.
Morphology is the study of morphemes, obviously.  Morphemes are words, word stems, and affixes, basically the unit of language one up from phonemes. Although they are often understood as units of meaning, they are usually considered a part of a language's syntax or grammar.  It is specifically grammatical morphemes that this chapter will focus on.
Syntax is the study of the principles and rules for constructing sentences in natural languages or the study of the rules that govern the ways in which words combine to form phrases, clauses, and sentences. Syntax is one of the major components of grammar.
Pragmatics is the study of the aspects of meaning and language use that are dependent on the speaker, the addressee and other features of the context of utterance, such as the following:
The effect that the following have on the speaker’s choice of expression and the addressee’s interpretation of an utterance:
o    Context of utterance
o    Generally observed principles of communication
o    The goals of the speaker
·         Programmatic concerns, such as
o    the treatment of given versus new information, including presupposition
o    speech acts, especially illocutionary acts
o    implicature, and
o    the relations of meaning or function between portions of discourse (see interpropositional relation) or turns of conversation (see conversation analysis)
A. Lexical meaning
  Lexical is the meaning compatible with dictionary. It need to know that dictionaries which not actually so to exist the other means not lexical like figurative meaning.
I walked five kilos yesterday, and now my legs ache
The ache in my foot prevented me from running fast
B. Grammatical
 A grammatical process will happen after covering grammatical process.
Example :
               Clouth – using a clouth
                 Horse – Riding a horse
                  mis + understand + ing
                 copy + able
C. Contextual meaning
 Contextual meaning is word avaible in the one context.
Example :
                  My brother felt by bike
               She have fallen in the examination
                He felt falling in love to my sister
 If price had fallen we would have become bankrupt
D. Referencial and Non referencial meaning
The words have meaning is called referencial and haven’t meaning is called non referencial. The words like horse, red, and picture (referencial) on the contrary and, or, but and because (non referencial).
Deictic word is the words included pronoun like she/he, you, and I. the words explain to room like here, there, those, adverb of time like now, tomorrow, yesterday. The words called indicator like this and those.
 Example :
A word I statement belong to reference it’s not same :
“I met with Mr Ahmad” Ani said Ali
E. Conceptual and Association meaning
Conceptual is the meaning of meaning by words have been free from the contex or association and association is the meaning of meaning by word agree to there is relation of word with there is something outside.
Conceptual meaning : horse is kind of animal and has four legs
                       horse is the habitually of human.
Association  meaning: Red : kind of colour
White : kind of colour
  Crocodile : kind of animal
F. Denotative and connotative meaning
 Denotative meaning is the orginal of meaning or the thruth of meaning so denotative meaning same with lexical meaning. Connotative meaning is the other of meaning “additional” to denotative meaning. Example :
Pig : kind of animal
Group of people : group of people that gather be once of group.
G. Word and Term
  Word is lexical meaning, denotative meaning, and conceptual meaning. Term is the thurth of meaning, clean it’s not hurry although without context.  Example :
Word : Match
Term : Linguistics
A. Synonym
 Synonym is the same of words have the same of meaning. Example :
Able – Capable (Mampu)
I shall be able to help when I get money
She is capable of teaching English to young children
Beautiful – Pretty (Cantik, Indah)
She is a beautiful girl
Fitri has a pretty face
B. Antonym
 Antonym is the pair of words have different meaning. Example:
Awake (Bangun) <> Asleep (Tidur)
I awake at three everymorning
He is asleeping soundly
Begin (Mulai) <> Finish (Selesai)

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